Upper Left Quadrant Details Upper Right Quadrant Details Lower Left Quadrant Details Lower Right Quadrant Details Details



The LLQ quadrant represents traditional communities, the kingdom of the notables. The patronage relationship is direct and vertical, based on clear normative rules related to the hierarchy of status. The ULQ quadrant refers to the diffusion of political machines in modern democratic systems, especially during the phases of economic and industrial development. The central institution is the party, which develops functions of socialization (as outlined by Merton) and integration in complex and heterogeneous societies. The URQ quadrant is typical of contemporary politics. After the decline of the mass party, interest groups protect their corporate interest by lobbying the decision-makers. The LRQ quadrant is the hidden part of the clientelist iceberg, where individuals stipulate contracts in a context of free market trying to avoid legal procedures and sanctions. Here the clientelist dynamic becomes corruption. [Luciano Brancaccio]