Upper Left Quadrant Details Upper Right Quadrant Details Lower Left Quadrant Details Lower Right Quadrant Details Details



We begin with the lower-left quadrant of community or communal life, estates, castes and consociations in a pre-sovereignty, pre-monist social pluralism, and, perhaps more accurately, a pre-state pluralism as small states-within-society or nation. The Lower right Quadrant is in an important sense a discontinuous move, from community to society, Gemeinshaft to Gesellschaft, but with emphasis also on the movement from communalism to individualism - in effect, liberalization and secularization. The Lower right quadrant is classic social pluralism - a civil society that is diverse in the way Tocqueville saw American communities and in the way any civil society is likely to develop if «freedom of association» is permitted. The upper right quadrant is precisely the Madisonian type of pluralism, where all groups of this type are consciensciously goal oriented, having turned to the State for favourable polices or for defense against the success of competing groups. It is at this point, logically and developmentally, that we get the pluralism that modern political science embraces. This is the pluralism of "interest groups." In a genuine pluralist democracy, interest groups continue to penetrate parties as a strategy of access to government. The ULQ is truly the polyarchal quadrant because the emphasis here is most strongly on "contestation" between "hegemonic interests" and other interest groups and corporations, through their more autonomous and relatively permanent corporate existence to act directly upon the state and all the layers of government.