Authors: Duhamel & Mény
Summary: Administration is the political institution charged with carrying out the tasks of governance. Its authority derives from the state's constitution. Administration in France, which is the focus of this entry, is characterized by historical continuity. From the constitution of 1791 to that of 1958 the French conception of administration has remained essentially unchanged. The French constitution subordinates administration to the executive branch. It also lays out the specific territorial levels of administrative organization, as well as the tasks and regulations (for instance, the principle of continuity) which define the activities of the administration or civil service. Finally, the French constitution establishes a particular branch of law, administrative law, and a specific judiciary, administrative courts, for all questions and controversies arising from administration.